Generally, there are two different approaches to administration: traditional and contemporary.
In the traditional approach, we have the following theories:
- Classical Approach or Bureaucratic Theory This theory is a mechanical approach to administration that ignores human nature. According to this theory, the most important components of organizations are strict hierarchies, chains of command and control, formal rules, and well-defined procedures.
- Behavioral Management Approach or Human Relations Theory In this school of thought, importance is placed on the welfare of the employees. According to this theory, administrators ought to pursue democratic and flexible solutions ways of directing their organizations. Companies that use this approach tend to have an informal workplace setups where leaders take on the role of motivators and influencers steering their teams towards the attainment of organizational goals.
The following are the contemporary theories:
- Contingency Theory In this theory, managers administer their organizations based on all key factors existent in the current situation. It is said that there is no single “best” way to run an organization, so they must always be handled according each situation.
- System Theory According to this theory, organizations work as an inter-related system of parts. Just like a computer system, if one part is not working, the entire system will break down and not work.
- Chaos Theory In general, the chaos theory states that all events in reality are random and cannot be controlled. Relating it to institutions, it means that they evolve like biological systems: the more complex it becomes, the more energy is required to maintain it.
- Scientific Management Theory This is a theory Developed by Frederick Taylor that emphasized the use of scientific methods to improve productivity in the workplace. This includes using time and motion studies, job analysis, and standardized work procedures to help improve efficiency.
- Administrative Management Theory This is Henri Fayol’s theory where he outlined the Principles of Administration. It focuses on the different functions of management.
Theories of Police Administration
- Home Rule Theory In this theory, police officers are said to be servants of the community.
- Continental Theory This theory is opposite of the previous one. Under this theory, police officers operate as servants of higher authorities.
- Problem-Oriented Policing This theory proposes that policing should focus on identifying and addressing underlying problems that contribute to law and order problems in the area. Furthermore, it says that effective policing must be done proactively and with a problem-solving approach that is designed according to the needs of each community.
- Community Policing Under this theory, police agencies are encouraged to foster positive relationships with the communities they serve as well as other law enforcement agencies serving the area. Emphasis is placed upon building trust, friendship, communication, and addressing the root causes of crime and disorder.
This theory is being applied in the country by our Philippine National Police (PNP) as part of an effort to change the image of police officers. The goal is to transform police officers from people to fear to people who are friends. That is, instead of using “Hala, adi na an pulis!” to scare children, the PNP wants the community to be able to say, “Adi na an aton sangkay nga pulis!“
Further to this concept, being able to build deeper connections within the community means being able to get more information and being better able to solve community problems.
Core Elements of Community Policing
- Developing community partnerships
Police agencies build partnerships with the following components of communities:
- Other Government Agencies: probation and parole, health and human services, schools, etc.
- Community Members and Groups Building partnerships with people who live and work in the community helps develop trust and transparency, which leads to more efficient and effective policing.
- Non-Profits and Service Providers This includes non-government organizations and similar institutions that serve the community.
- Private Businesses This includes all forms of businesses from micro-entrepreneurs to large multinational corporations, along with chambers of commerce and visitor bureaus.
- Media This includes local newspapers, television outlets, radio stations, and creators in the new media such as bloggers and vloggers. This helps police agencies improve their transparency and gain a better public image, which then leads to more effective policing.
- Engaging in problem-solving
Policing is supposed to be a proactive process. Hence, police officers are encouraged to take initiative and identify problems, develop innovative responses, and evaluate accordingly.
These are the general steps to take when problem-solving:
- Scanning Determining the nature and scope of the problem
- Analysis Carefully understand the problem
- Response Develop solutions
- Assessment Evaluate the success of the response and adjust accordingly
- Using the crime triangle Look for vulnerabilities in the crime triangle and disrupt the lines among the victims, offenders, and locations
- Implementing community policing organizational features
These features help support community policing:
- Agency Management Incorporating community policy ideals into all areas of the agency
- Organizational Structure This refers to creating a structure that empowers line-level officers to interact and build relationships with their community members on a daily basis.
- Personnel Community policing practices should be incorporated into all areas of staffing: recruitment, hiring, selection, training, evaluations.
- Information and Systems Technology Providing access to accurate community information and improving two-way communication between the community and the police officers